Critical Maori and Pakeha Histories - A Curriculum Programme Resource Written by Tamsin Hanly
Edited & illustrated by Ruth Lemon

CPR Structure and Content

Outlined here is the content of each of the Unit booklets.


Read more to find out about a best practice delivery model.

Unit Booklets


Unit One: Te Ao Māori o Neherā


This Unit covers:

  • the Māori Creation Theory
  • Māori origins of Te Orokohanga
  • Gondwanaland
  • Māui and other tūpuna bringing practical knowledge and resources to humans
  • deliberate Māori exploration, discovery and migration
  • through to purposeful and functioning iwi settlements in Aotearoa as tangata whenua with some baseline Māori cultural value systems, knowledge and worldviews.



Unit Two: British Isles


This Unit covers;

  • Different groups of peoples, histories, knowledge and cultural worldviews of England, Wales, Ireland and Scotland
  • Tasman and Cook as explorers that visited Aotearoa
  • from communal to individual land ownership
  • colonisation and potato famines
  • 19th century British industrialisation.

This unit builds understanding of the complex reasons why some of these Europeans began to migrate to Aotearoa.




Unit 3: Two Worlds Meet


This Unit includes:

  • The two different worldviews meeting and naming each other.
  • First encounters, relationship and agendas of both Māori and Pākehā groups including sealers, whalers, traders, literacy teachers, missionaries, leading to the musket wars.
  • Māori declare their independence in 1835 which Britain formally recognises.
  • Māori ask for some Pākehā authority to oversee lawless Pākehā.
  • Britain can only propose treaty agreements to Māori leaders.



Unit Four: Te Tiriti o Waitangi


This Unit covers:

  • What are agreements, their functions and reasons for honouring agreements?
  • What were Māori and Pākehā pros and cons around a treaty with each other?
  • The creation of the Māori text Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the signings in 1840.
  • The agreements, rights and responsibilities made in each Article by the two sovereign groups.
  • The later introduction of a non-literal English version with some different meanings.
  • What happened as a result?




Unit Five: Pākehā Responses


This Unit covers:

  • What is tikanga and what are laws and their functions? Includes specific Pākehā legislations that transgress the agreements made in Te Tiriti o Waitangi and their impacts on Māori and Pākehā.
  • How a Māori resource base became a Pākehā resource base.
  • Compares a 'colonial standard story' of history with an honouring Te Tiriti story.
  • Critically explores and celebrates the complex aspects of Pākehā Culture and histories.




Unit Six: Māori Responses


This Unit covers:

  • Civil actions and protest forms.
  • A historical range of Māori civil actions made in response to Tiriti transgressions, from Hone Heke in the 1840s to the Foreshore March in the 2000s and the effects of these on the nation.









All references in the resource (with the exception of asterisked texts sourced at University libraries) are sourced from the National Library of New Zealand. Selected fiction titles have been included as a starting point. The list is not exhaustive  as there are too many - educators should include fiction in all aspects of their planning and delivery.